Level 2

Both the consonant ligatures (tz, ct, ts, ff etc.) as well as the ligature ij and the ligatures commonly used in German-language texts such as fi, fl, ft, their derivatives, as well as fk, fj, fh, fb, fz, ll, mm, nn, st, ch, ck, ct, th, tt, tz, kk, Qu, ſi, ſſ, ſt, ſch are always to be split.

In order to recognize split ligatures in Ground-Truth, these ligatures are regarded as typographical peculiarities and labelled accordingly.

Vocal ligatures are always transcribed as one sign:

Original Character Entity Description
ae-ligature æ U+00E6 LATIN SMALL LETTER AE
oe-ligature œ U+0153 LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE
AE-ligature Æ U+00C6 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE
OE-ligature ΠU+0152 LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE