Level 1

Both the consonant ligatures (tz, ct, ts, ff etc.) as well as the ligature ij and the ligatures commonly used in German-language texts such as fi, fl, ft, their derivatives, as well as fk, fj, fh, fb, fz, ll, mm, nn, st, ch, ck, ct, th, tt, tz, kk, Qu, ſi, ſſ, ſt, ſch are always to be split. The existence of the ligature is not documented.

Vocal ligatures are always transcribed:

Original Character Entity Description
ae-ligature æ U+00E6 LATIN SMALL LETTER AE
oe-ligature œ U+0153 LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE
AE-ligature Æ U+00C6 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE
OE-ligature ΠU+0152 LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE